Arthrosis of the ankle joint is a chronic disease of a degenerative-dystrophic type. The first thing that is affected is cartilage.
Then the painful process moves to other parts of the joint: the synovial membrane, capsule, ligaments, bones and nearby muscles. The cause of osteoarthritis can be trauma, overstrain, malfunction of metabolic processes, inflammation, etc.
Most often, the disease begins to manifest itself for no reason. The first symptom of osteoarthritis is pain with any movement of the joints.
Causes of Ankle Arthrosis
Why does arthrosis of the ankle joint occur, and what is it? The ankle joint is the connection of the talus of the foot to the bones of the tibia. The joint has mobility and performs plantar and dorsal flexion and extension of the foot, as well as small lateral movements.
Due to its location, this joint is affected by the entire body mass. This leads to increased stress on him and, as a result, may cause his overload, which eventually results in a disease like arthrosis of the ankle joint.
The provoking factors are:
- heavy exercise;
- diseases caused by metabolic disorders in the body (diabetes, gout, pseudogout, etc.);
- “inheritance”, it is proved that arthrosis can be inherited;
- injuries, dislocations, sprains in the area of the joints;
- arthritis and other inflammatory processes.
The traumatic nature of the development of arthrosis plays an important role. After injuries, especially those that have not been treated, so-called post-traumatic arthrosis of the ankle joint may develop.
Arthrosis of the ankle can be of two types:
- Primary - in this case, the destruction of cartilage occurs on a healthy joint, for example, with strong loads on the joints.
- Secondary - in this case, the process of cartilage destruction occurs in the already changed. For example, after vascular disorders, injuries or intraarticular fracture.
Manifestations of ankle arthrosis occur unnoticed, first a crunch in the joint appears, and later minor pains during exertion.
Symptoms of ankle arthrosis
The first signs of ankle osteoarthritis, most often, pass completely unnoticed. The symptoms of each person may be different, and the severity of inflammatory reactions depends on the stage of the disease.
However, the symptoms of osteoarthritis of the ankle joint (see photo) can be recognized by a certain clinical picture:
- "Start" pain. This is one of the earliest symptoms of ankle arthrosis. The pain appears after prolonged sitting when trying to lean on the leg, may be accompanied by short-term stiffness of movements in the joint. After making a few steps pain disappear.
- Pains that get worse with exertion;
- Crunch in the joints, clicks, creak;
- Limited mobility or stiffness when moving;
- The curvature of the axis of the leg (it may acquire an X-shaped or O-shaped);
- Often occurring subluxations;
- Atrophy of the muscles that are adjacent to the injured;
- Swelling of the joints;
- Feet may be hot.
If you do not go to a doctor in time, more severe processes begin in the joints of the foot. The pains will intensify, and the beginning of the movement will cease to relieve from them. The discomfort becomes permanent, stiffness and restriction of mobility are clearly expressed in the joints.
At the next stage of the disease development, the joint deformity occurs. And in the most advanced cases, the joint is completely destroyed, which leads to a person’s disability.
Rheovasography allows to help in making an accurate diagnosis, in addition the ankle shine with X-rays. Blood tests are taken. Usually these clinical studies are enough to reveal the presence of arthrosis or arthritis, and then proper treatment is selected.
Treatment of Arthrosis of the Ankle Joint
As for the question of how to treat arthrosis of the ankle joint, arthrosis of any etiology and localization is treated according to the same pattern. Therapy includes the following components:
- elimination of painful sensations.
- removing signs of inflammation. how to treat arthrosis of the foot
- improvement of blood supply and nutrition in the articular tissues.
- restoration of range of motion in the ankle joint.
The choice of the method (conservative or surgical) depends on what stage the development of the pathological process is at.
All therapeutic drugs used to treat ankle arthrosis are divided into two large groups: quick-acting drugs and slow-release drugs.
Representatives of these groups have different effects on the disease and benefit the body. So, quick-acting drugs treat only the symptoms of the disease - they reduce pain in the ankle joint. Slow-acting drugs inhibit the progression of ankle arthrosis, i.e. partially stop the further course of the disease.
- To relieve inflammation and stop pain syndrome is often possible only with the help of special drugs - NSAIDs, taken orally. This group includes: Voltaren, Deklofenak, Movalis, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin.
- Chondroprotectors are biologically active substances that contain chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate. They make the cartilage layer dense and elastic. Admission for 6 months or more helps stop the progression of the disease and maintains the condition of the cartilage in the required form.
- Well help hyaluronic acid. They are analogous to the synovial fluid that fills the cavity of the joint.
Surgical treatment is resorted to when treatment at home has proved ineffective, and the patient has no movement in the ankle joint.
The most popular method of surgical treatment is arthroplasty or joint replacement with implants made from high-tech materials.
The operation can be performed if the bone tissue is healthy, and from other systems there are no restrictions to the operation.
They are used directly for local treatment at home, as a rule, contain in their composition painkillers.
Treat such ointments:
- Deep Relief;
Typically, ointments can achieve a clear therapeutic effect, especially when combined with other medications.
Gymnastics with arthritis
Exercises for arthrosis is an effective way to develop a joint, improve nutrition in the tissues, and speed up metabolism. It is important to remember that the exercises chosen by the instructor should be performed during the period of subsiding of the symptoms. The load on the joints is selected taking into account the age, stage of development of the disease.
Competently chosen exercises bring only benefit, but not pain and discomfort. From other means of physiotherapy, the terms of treatment are reduced by laser therapy, massage, magnetic therapy.
Physical procedures and massage
If ankle arthrosis has developed, physiotherapeutic procedures should be an indispensable component of treatment. Although some doctors are quite skeptical about this type of treatment. However, the use of magnetic therapy, electrophoresis and phonophoresis with glucocorticoids, paraffin enhances the effect of drugs and relieves swelling and inflammation in the ankle.
However, such treatment should be carried out only in the remission phase (remission) of arthritic processes. The effect of physical procedures can be fixed with spa treatment at mud resorts.
Prevention of arthrosis is in compliance with simple rules:
- Control body weight.
- Time to treat and correct metabolic disorders, endocrine, vascular diseases.
- It is necessary to adhere to a diet, that is, to eat more foods rich in protein, and to refrain from salty, spicy, fried, alcohol.
- Avoid joint injury. To do this, you should try not to wear shoes with an unstable heel, a too hard sole, and use special protective equipment when playing sports.
The effectiveness of treatment of deforming arthrosis of the ankle joint depends on the stage of its development and the presence of concomitant diseases.