Osteoarthritis of the knee occupies a leading position in the incidence of arthrosis of the joints in the group of diseases. By severity, the disease is in second place after coxarthrosis.
Gonarthrosis suffers every fifth person on the planet. Predisposition to this disease are especially people older than 40 years and, as noted in this case, the incidence of women is almost 2 times higher than in men. According to statistics, 7-22% of people in the world suffer from gonarthrosis.
It can be said that with this disease, the articular cartilage cracks, becomes thinner, losing its fibrousness and cushioning properties, which, in principle, makes it impossible to soften the periodic impacts of the knee joint and body during movement.
Today we will look at osteoarthritis of the knee, find out what it is, what are the symptoms of this ailment, and also tell you about effective treatment methods, including at home.
What are the causes of osteoarthritis of the knee, and what is it? Every day, our knee joints in the process of walking, maintaining the weight of the whole body, are subjected to physical exertion. Cartilage tissue wears out over the years, causing changes in the joint. Therefore, elderly people have arthrosis of the knee joints.
At risk of gonarthrosis are people:
- suffering from osteoporosis;
- with hereditary disorders;
- old age;
- with specific professions;
- with metabolic disorders in the body;
- with micronutrient deficiencies;
- injured on the spine;
- involved in some sports.
The disease develops gradually, it is very important to seek professional help from a doctor in time to avoid limiting the movement of the joint and disability in the future.
In osteoarthritis of the knee joint, certain symptoms are observed. The nature of the pain:
- discomfort upon waking when trying to get up after prolonged sitting;
- pain in the knee with prolonged standing;
- burning and irritation when climbing stairs;
- night pain, as well as after exercise;
- weakness in the legs, "podkashivanie" limbs.
The most important symptom indicating the occurrence of gonarthrosis, are pain in the knee articular region. In this case, the disease does not occur sharply, the pain will increase for many months and even years. At first they will disturb the patient only with increased loads on the legs, and then even at rest.
Osteoarthritis of the knee 1 degree
Osteoarthritis grade 1 occurs with virtually no visible symptoms. This phase of development is characterized by:
- tired legs;
- a slight decrease in mobility, which is usually observed immediately after sleep.
Pain symptoms, if any, occur only slightly. At this point, osteoarthritis of the knee appears on the X-ray in the form of small irregularities on the cartilage tissue and the surface of the bones.
There may also be a slight narrowing of the lumen between the bones. At this stage, it is extremely difficult to diagnose pathology; therefore, radiography is mandatory.
Arthrosis of the knee joint 2 degrees
When arthrosis of the knee joint 2 degrees, the symptoms are more pronounced. Pain they arise from the minimum load or immediately after it. In the affected part of the leg, the pain is caused by almost any movement. After a sufficiently long rest, it usually passes completely. However, regular physical actions immediately cause pain.
At about the second stage of the development of the disease, the following are added to the pain:
- crunch in the knee when moving;
- reduced ability to normally bend the leg at the knee;
- changes in the bones of the joint;
- progressive synovitis.
The crude arthritic crunch of the joints is usually barely audible at first, but becomes very loud and distinct as the disease progresses. When you try to bend the leg at the knee, a sharp pain occurs. In some cases, this can be done only up to an angle of 90 degrees, and then with difficulty and through pain. Also, the change in the shape of the joint becomes obvious, which is aggravated by the accumulation of pathological fluid in it.
Arthrosis of the knee joint 3 degrees
Characteristic features of grade 3 arthrosis are severe pain, independent of the amount and intensity of physical exertion. The joint worries a person even at night, this causes significant inconvenience.
The mobility of the knee is impaired and the person is no longer able to bend the leg at the knee. There is a sensitivity to changes in the weather, to which the affected area is very sensitive.
Radiograph is able to show global changes in cartilage tissue, joint surface, uncharacteristic growths. O-shaped or X-shaped curvature brings the person to disability.
The doctor, after listening to the patient's complaints, when examining, first of all, draws attention to visible changes in the structure of the extremity (coarsening of the bones, deformation), and reduced mobility in the joint. Feeling accompanied by pain, with a shift of the patella heard a crunch.
The main method for the diagnosis of gonarthrosis is radiography of the joint (in this case, pathology may not be detected at the first stage). There may be several such images to follow the dynamics of the disease. In addition to x-rays, MRI or computed tomography may be indicated.
All these studies are necessary to correctly identify the causes of the disease, as well as to differentiate gonarthrosis from other diseases of the joints.
Treatment methods for osteoarthritis of the knee
With a diagnosed osteoarthritis of the knee, treatment may include the following methods:
- drug therapy;
- massage and manual therapy;
- surgical intervention;
- rehabilitation therapy (exercise therapy, physiotherapy and other methods).
The goals of gonarthrosis treatment are:
- eliminate pain;
- if possible, restore the destroyed cartilage and ligamentous apparatus;
- increase the range of motion in the joint.
Massage procedures, physiotherapy exercises and proper balanced nutrition (diet) are very important. If a visit to the doctor happens too late or no method of result yielded, joint surgery may be performed: an endoprosthesis is called a surgical procedure.
How to treat osteoarthritis of the knee
The main groups of drugs used to treat arthrosis include the following categories:
- NSAIDs are a nonsteroidal group of anti-inflammatory drugs;
- Healing creams, ointments and rubbing;
- Means used for compresses.
As NSA preparations are used - diclofenac, ketoprofen, piroxicam, butadione, indomethacin, ibuprofen, nimulid, celebrex and their derivatives.
When arthrosis is nonsteroid, i.e. non-harmonic, anti-inflammatory drugs are traditionally used to eliminate inflammation and pain, because due to severe pain there is no opportunity to begin treatment. Only after the pain has been eliminated by anti-inflammatory drugs can one proceed to a massage, a complex of therapeutic gymnastics and physiotherapeutic procedures.
In the case when the treatment of NSAIDs is not enough, and the disease continues to progress, the doctor may prescribe injections of hormonal drugs. They relate to the means of “heavy artillery” and help to quickly eliminate pain, reduce inflammation and swelling of surrounding tissues.
Often used hormonal drugs:
Due to the large number of side effects, hormonal preparations are prescribed in short courses, only in the acute period of the disease, when inflammatory fluid accumulates in the articular cavity. The drug is injected into the joint space no more than 1 time in 10 days.
They are the only medications that directly affect the cause of arthrosis of the joints. Especially in the early stages and especially those that contain chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate.
The action of these drugs is based on the restoration of normal production of synovial fluid and damaged cartilage.
It is quite effective in the initial stages of osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Introduced intra-articularly.
The procedure is not cheap. Helps reduce abrasion of the surfaces of the joint cartilage. The main thing is that the medicine does not penetrate into the bloodstream, there is a risk of embolic complications.
There is a large list of ointments and gels aimed at relieving pain and reducing the inflammatory process.
This list includes ointments for osteoarthritis of the knee joint:
- Fastum gel;
- Heparin ointment;
The list of ointments for joints of the knees is quite large and is not limited to the ones listed by us, and the composition of the medicines included in the ointment is similar.
Folk remedies for the treatment of arthrosis
How to treat osteoarthritis of the knee at home? Drug therapy can complement some recipes of traditional medicine.
- Dandelion flowers treatment. Every day you need to eat 5 dandelion flowers washed with boiled water. You can make an infusion. For these purposes, take 5 bottles with dark glass and half fill with flowers, and fill the remaining space with a triple cologne. Insist in a dark place for 1 month and rub your knees before bedtime. Even for the treatment you need to dry the leaves, which are subsequently poured boiling water. Every day 1 tbsp. This mixture should be chewed as much time as it takes to complete 3 thousand steps. Such treatment folk remedies quite effectively.
- Lapping is a tool that must be rubbed into the region of the knee joint in case of arthrosis. Making it pretty simple. To do this, take the chicken egg yolk and mix it with a small spoon of turpentine. There also pours a big spoon of apple cider vinegar. Everything is mixed and applied at night. Before going to bed with this medicine, the knee is smeared, wrapped with a woolen scarf, which is removed only in the morning. Opening the scarf, you will need to thoroughly wash the place rubbing funds. In order to treat arthrosis using this recipe, you need to use it regularly for several weeks. Although, the first results will already be noticeable on the 3rd day of using the product.
- Burdock According to the popular recipe, you need to take 2-3 young leaves of burdock and attach it to the diseased knee with a bandage. To achieve the effect, the knee should be warmed with a warm scarf and left a compress for the night. The procedure should be repeated every day throughout the week. This will remove the tumor and reduce pain. To enhance the effect, it is recommended to pre-lubricate the knee with caramel oil. In this case, the burdock must be applied to the knee with the back side, and on top of it you should make a plastic bandage and warming with a woolen scarf.
- When arthrosis is effective, the juice of celandine. The fabric impregnated by it is imposed on a sore joint. After 50 minutes vegetable oil lubricated joint. The duration of treatment is a week. Break - 10 days, and repeat.
- Two tablespoons of dried root harpagophytum need to fall asleep in a thermos, pour 1 liter of boiling water and leave for at least 2 hours. In order to successfully treat osteoarthritis, you should drink 3-4 glasses of the obtained drug in a warm form per day.
Many patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint have noted a significant improvement in the condition and a decrease in painful and unpleasant sensations after the use of traditional medicines intended for external or external use.
Video exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee
A positive result is not possible without a course of therapeutic exercises that can be performed at home. It strengthens muscles, improves blood circulation in the joint. To obtain the desired effect, you need to forget about the intense tension of the joint.
- You can lie on your back and, lifting your leg, hold it upright in the weight. Or alternately raise the legs from the same position lying on your back for 10 - 15 times.
The main rule in the treatment of gymnastics is slow and measured movements without any jerks.
Proper nutrition is an important component of successful treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee joint.
- Breakfast: oatmeal in water without oil and sugar, fruit juice, boiled egg.
- The second breakfast: a glass of low-fat natural yogurt.
- Lunch: meat or fish, steamed, steamed vegetables, tea without sugar.
- Lunch: cottage cheese casserole with nuts, a glass of fruit juice.
- Dinner: vegetable salad, apple, tea without sugar.
- Second dinner: a glass of low-fat kefir.
Eat more often, while eating small portions. This will speed up the metabolism, which will lead to weight loss. Between the main meals in case of hunger attacks, snacks are allowed. Fruits can be used for them, with the exception of grapes and bananas, wholegrain bread.