Arthritis is an inflammatory process of the knee joint. The disease progresses slowly, constantly progressing and is accompanied by pain and discomfort during movement.
This disease can lead to disability, it affects people between the ages of 25 and 35, after 40 years of arthritis of the knee joint, one in five women is sick, and after 60 years, this disease affects every second person.
It is important to know the symptoms of arthritis of the knee joint in order to be able to diagnose this insidious disease in a timely manner and begin treatment with the help of medicines and folk remedies.
Most often, knee arthritis occurs as a result of pathogenic microorganisms entering the joint, where the development of the inflammatory process begins. This reaction is accompanied by reddening of the skin on the sore knee, an increase in its volume and impaired mobility. In most cases, puncture of the knee joint gets purulent contents.
Depending on how the pathological process developed, arthritis can be primary and secondary.
- Primary - starts for no apparent reason. Symptoms of arthritis in the knee joint appear due to injuries, rheumatoid abnormalities and suppurative microbes and infections.
- Secondary - appears due to the development of an adjacent disease: psoriasis, rheumatism, immune pathologies, osteoarthritis.
The primary form includes the following types:
- Rheumatoid, the causes of which are still not fully understood;
- Post-traumatic, whose name indicates the development of inflammation due to injury;
- Septic, an inflammatory disease, provoked by purulent microbes;
- Idiopathic, the causes of which are not clear.
Secondary arthritis may result from other diseases of the knee joint. For example, reactive arthritis is a complication of infectious diseases of the organs of the urogenital system or the gastrointestinal tract, and rheumatoid is a severe autoimmune pathology, the causes of which have not been fully studied.
The main risk factors for the development of the disease are:
- belonging to the female sex;
- age over 45 years;
- chronic infectious - viral or bacterial - diseases;
- congenital defects of the musculoskeletal system;
- genetic predisposition.
Regardless of the causes of development in the manifestations of various forms of arthritis, there are common symptoms:
- pain aggravated by movement;
- swelling and swelling of the affected joint;
- an increase in temperature and redness of the skin in the area of inflammation;
- decrease in the volume of movements in the joint.
Symptoms may vary depending on the extent of the disease.
In arthritis of the knee joint, the symptoms largely depend on the immediate cause that caused them. So, acute knee arthritis begins suddenly and, unlike chronic ones, is characterized by severe intoxication. However, there are similar non-specific signs characteristic of arthritis of any etiology.
A clear symptom of arthritis of the knee is pain. At first it can be weak, appear only under load and disappear at rest. Then the discomfort in the knee becomes regular, pain occurs more and more often.
There may be a slight swelling of tissues and limited mobility in the joint. In the acute phase, body temperature increases, the skin reddens over the affected joint, symptoms of intoxication appear: fatigue, lethargy, muscle pain.
There are 3 degrees of joint damage, we will consider the symptoms in more detail.
- At this extent, damage to the articular cartilage is negligible. Clinically manifested by pain in the joint with active movements, with their decrease at rest. There are no mobility restrictions, walking with a slight limp. Swelling of the joint is moderate, the skin is not changed. Body temperature 37.3-37.5 ° C.
- Pathological changes of the joints are more noticeable, pain and swelling are pronounced, leg mobility is limited. X-ray diagnostics of erosions, hyaline cartilage drying with simultaneous thickening of the capsule, narrowing of its lumen are visible on the tissues of the joint. Perhaps an increase in body temperature to 38.5C.
- This stage is characterized by deforming changes in the joints and bone tissue. As the disease progresses, the pain syndrome leads to the occurrence of sustained muscle spasm and its atrophy. X-ray of the joint shows the narrowing of the joint space and the growth of osteophytes (growths on the conjugate bones). The patient begins to suffer from meteozavisimosti. Changes in the weather are reflected in pain ... Body temperature rises to high numbers of 39.0 ° C and higher.
Arthritis of the knee in children also has its own characteristics: the knee mostly hurts in the morning, and during the day the child practically does not complain about anything. Occurs more often after a cold or ARVI. It must be remembered that children can also become ill with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with characteristic lesions of the articular surfaces and persistent deformity of the joints.
Knee arthritis treatment
With diagnosed arthritis of the knee, the treatment is carried out conservatively in the initial stages.
The choice of drugs depends on the cause of the disease. There are several types of inflammatory changes in the joints.
The complex of therapeutic measures includes:
- NSAIDs (ketonal, ibuprofen, diclofenac, meloxicam, naproxen, ketoprofen) - to relieve inflammation and pain;
- Restoration of metabolic processes (taking chondroprotectors, vitamins and immunostimulants);
- Glucocorticosteroids (methylprednisolone, diprospan, celeston, phlosterone) - to relieve acute pain in the form of a shot in the joint cavity or chipping around the inflamed area.
- Normalization of the nutrition of the articular tissues;
- Getting rid of excess weight (auriculotherapy, diet, herbal medicine to improve metabolic processes and breakdown fat deposits, to reduce the burden on the knees);
- Restoration of normal motor activity, support ability of the lower extremities, the resumption of the full amplitude of movements;
- External therapy - ointment treatment with virapin, capsoderm, ketonal, vipratox, long-lasting, Raymond-gel, Elakur, indomethacin, menovazin.
- Preventive measures to prevent the recurrence of the disease.
Painful sensations will help to reduce not only medicines, but also supporting means such as a cane or crutches.
The use of drugs for arthritis is carried out in two directions:
- pain relief;
- restoration of cartilage tissue.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as nimesulide, butadione, diclofenac, piroxicam, ibuprofen, are used to reduce pain. For emergency relief of pain, corticosteroids are used.
Etiotropic treatment of arthritis of the knee joint is to restore the substance of cartilage tissue. For this purpose chondroprotectors are used, such as struktum, arthra, teraflex, chondrolone and others. These substances improve the trophism of cartilage tissue, normalize metabolic processes and contribute to the restoration of articular cartilage.
Also effective are injections of hyaluronic acid drugs. Penetrating into the cartilage tissue, these drugs increase its elasticity, improving the biomechanics of the damaged joint.
If the cause of inflammation in arthritis is an infection, then the antibiotic is indispensable.
If arthritis has gone far enough, it turns into arthrosis. The disease is associated with degenerative lesions of bones and cartilage. Against the background of pathology, the formation of cracks in the meniscus and synovial membranes. Over time, tissues are destroyed and degenerated.
To prevent arthrosis from becoming arthritis, surgeons perform arthroscopy. This intervention is performed to review the state of the anatomical structures. Through a small incision, zones are introduced into the joint cavity to review the condition of the ligaments and cartilage. Using the tool, you can remove pus and inflammatory fluid. To prevent bacterial inflammation, antibiotics are injected into the joint cavity.
Nutrition plays a very important role in the treatment of arthritis of the joints. Diet completely eliminates the intake of spicy and salty foods. It is necessary to consume more fiber, which is contained in fresh vegetables and fruits.
For articular cartilage, seafood, which contains natural chondroitin, is a useful ingredient. And fatty amino acids in marine fish must be the main component of the diet for arthritis of the knee joint.
In the chronic course of arthritis, as well as after the removal of the acute state, it is necessary to perform simple physical exercises:
Sit on a chair, then swing your legs (in turn) back and forth to a state of mild fatigue.
- From the same position, hold the leg parallel to the floor for 5 seconds. The number of repetitions - 10 times for each leg.
- Lying on your back, you must raise the straight leg to a height of 25-30 cm and hold it for a few seconds. Repeat the exercise 6 times for each leg.
- An exercise that simulates cycling is performed lying on the floor for 1 minute.
- Lie on your stomach and lift your leg up, bending it at the knee. At the same time you need to stretch the heel as close as possible to the buttock.
- Sitting on the floor, the body is tilted forward, trying to reach to the toes.
Taking into account the course of the disease, the attending physician may recommend other exercises that will be of a health nature.
In the initial stages of the disease, topical treatment with ointments with anti-inflammatory effects can be used.
- Diclofenac is one of the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs of the first generation. The most famous drugs containing this active substance are Voltaren, Ortofen, Diklonak-P and others.
- Bystrumgel - nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent for topical use, a derivative of propionic acid
- Long cream - 100 g of cream contains 5 g of ibuprofen. Ibuprofen has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect
- Nise is a synthetic drug used to treat joint diseases and reduce pain of various etiologies.
- Ketonal is an anti-inflammatory drug with a pronounced analgesic effect. The main active ingredient of Ketonal is ketoprofen - a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID).
How to treat knee arthritis folk remedies
Traditional medicine has many recipes for treating arthritis. Herbal preparations, mummy, preparations based on clay, healing baths, rubbing and creams are used to treat the knee joint. Consider some recipes in more detail.
- Mix in equal proportions of valerian root with chamomile flowers and flowers of black elderberry. Pour boiling water over the mixture, bring to a boil, cool, press, put between two layers of gauze, pin to the diseased joint, cover with polyethylene or compress paper on top, leave the compress overnight. Compress has a pronounced analgesic effect.
- You can make a tincture for symptoms of knee arthritis from 20 grams of birch buds and 100 ml of 70-degree alcohol. Infused solution for 2 weeks, wrung out, filtered and taken 15-30 drops 3 times a day, mixed with a tablespoon of water. Keep the tincture necessary in a cool dark place. Can be used for external rubbing in rheumatism and arthritis for the treatment of symptoms.
- Compresses of decoctions of thistles, sleeping herbs, calendula flowers, hop cones and juniper berries, thyme, and water mistletoe have a good analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect.
- Two teaspoons of lingonberry leaves pour a glass of water and boil for 15 minutes. Cool, filter and discharged during the day in sips. This remedy is used to treat salt deposits, spondylosis, articular rheumatism, arthritis, gout and edema.
- When pain in the joints helps garlic, which is always in the house. Take 5 heads, peel and finely chop, pour 0.5 liters of vodka and insist 10 days in the dark. Before each use of food, drink a teaspoon of tincture. If it is too strong, then dilute the dose with 3 tbsp. boiled water. Or take 3 heads of garlic, cleaned, rubbed on a grater, add juice, squeezed from ten lemons, and 1 tsp to it. chopped horseradish. Mixture insist in a dark and warm place for 3 weeks. Add a spoonful of prepared elixir to a glass of water and drink it in the morning and evening until the end of the infusion.
- Quite well helps with arthritis decoction of bay leaf. To do this, take a pack of bay leaf and half put in the pan. Pour 300 ml of boiling water and boil for 5 minutes. After wrap better and let it brew for three hours. After 3 hours, filter and drink before bedtime. And so 3 days in a row. Do not drink yesterday's decoction, do not be lazy and cook a new one every day. A week later, you need to repeat the course. From the very beginning the course is repeated a year later.
Timely treatment of arthritis stops the pathological process, and this is the merit of not only medical drugs, but also folk, physiotherapeutic methods of treatment, as well as diet.