Anemia is a decrease in the blood count of red blood cells — red blood cells below 4.0x109 / l, or a decrease in hemoglobin levels below 130 g / l in men and below 120 g / l in women. Anemia during pregnancy is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin below 110 g / l.
This is not an independent disease, anemia occurs as a syndrome in a number of diseases and leads to disruption in the supply of oxygen to all organs and tissues of the body, which, in turn, provokes the development of many other diseases and pathological conditions.
Degrees of severity
Depending on the concentration of hemoglobin, it is customary to distinguish three degrees of severity of anemia:
- grade 1 anemia is registered when the hemoglobin level decreases by more than 20% of the normal rate;
- grade 2 anemia is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin content by about 20–40% of the normal level;
- Grade 3 anemia is the most severe form of the disease when hemoglobin decreases by more than 40% of the normal rate.
Definitely show that the patient has a grade 1 or a more severe stage can only be a blood test.
What it is: anemia, that is, anemia, is nothing more than a lack of hemoglobin in the blood. Namely, hemoglobin carries oxygen through all tissues of the body. That is, anemia is caused precisely by the lack of oxygen in the cells of all organs and systems.
- The nature of power. With insufficient consumption of iron-containing foods, iron deficiency anemia can develop, this is more characteristic of populations where there is already a high level of nutritional anemia;
- Disruption of the gastrointestinal tract (in violation of the process of absorption). Since the absorption of iron occurs in the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine, in violation of the process of absorption, the mucous membrane of the digestive tract, the disease develops.
- Chronic hemorrhage (gastrointestinal bleeding, nosebleeds, hemoptysis, hematuria, uterine bleeding). Belongs to one of the most important causes of iron deficiency.
Thus, the cause of anemia can be considered a lack of iron in the body, which entails a lack of hemoglobin and, as a result, an insufficient supply of blood to the body.
The most common form of anemia. It is based on a violation of the synthesis of hemoglobin (oxygen carrier) due to iron deficiency. It is manifested by vertigo, tinnitus, flashing flies before the eyes, shortness of breath, palpitations. Dry skin, pallor, marked in the corners of the mouth appear jammed, cracks. Typical manifestations are brittleness and lamination of nails, their pepper striation.
This is often acquired acute, subacute or chronic disease of the blood system, which is based on a violation of the hematopoietic function of the bone marrow, namely a sharp decline in its ability to produce blood cells.
Sometimes aplastic anemia begins acutely and develops rapidly. But more often the disease occurs gradually and does not manifest itself as bright symptoms for quite a long time. The symptoms of aplastic anemia include all the symptoms characteristic of a lack of red blood cells, platelets and leukocytes in the blood.
B12 deficiency anemia
Occurs when there is a deficiency in the body of vitamin B12, which is necessary for the growth and maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow, as well as for the proper functioning of the nervous system. For this reason, one of the distinguishing symptoms of B12-deficient anemia is tingling and numbness in the fingers, a wobbly gait.
Erythrocytes of a special enlarged form are found in the blood. Lack of vitamin B12 can be observed in the elderly, in diseases of the digestive tract, in the presence of parasites - tapeworms.
Hemolysis occurs under the influence of antibodies. These may be maternal antibodies directed against the erythrocytes of the child with the incompatibility of the child and the mother for the Rh antigen and much less often for the antigens of the ABO system. Antibodies against own erythrocytes can be active at normal temperature or only when cooled.
They can appear for no apparent reason or due to the fixation on the erythrocytes alien to the body incomplete hapten antigens.
We list the main signs of anemia that may alarm a person.
- pallor of the skin;
- increased heart rate and breathing;
- fast fatiguability;
- noise in ears;
- spots in the eyes;
- muscle weakness;
- difficulty concentrating;
- a slight increase in temperature.
Symptoms of anemia
Among the symptoms of anemia, symptoms directly related to hypoxia are considered to be leading. The degree of clinical manifestations depends on the severity of hemoglobin decrease.
- With a mild degree (hemoglobin level of 115-90 g / l), general weakness, increased fatigue, decreased concentration of attention can be observed.
- With an average (90-70 g / l), patients complain of shortness of breath, heart palpitations, frequent headache, sleep disturbance, tinnitus, loss of appetite, lack of sexual desire. Patients are distinguished by pallor of the skin.
- In the case of severe (hemoglobin less than 70 g / l) symptoms of heart failure develop.
With anemia, the symptoms in many cases do not manifest themselves. Detect the disease is possible only with laboratory blood tests.
Diagnosis of the disease
In order to understand how to treat anemia, it is important to determine its type and cause of development. The main method of diagnosis of this disease is the study of the blood of the patient.
Normal values of the amount of hemoglobin in the blood are:
- for men 130-160 grams per liter of blood.
- for women 120-147 g / l.
- for pregnant women the lower limit of normal 110g l.
Treatment of anemia
Naturally, the treatment of anemia is fundamentally different depending on the type of anemia that caused its causes and severity. But the basic principle of the treatment of anemia of any kind is one - it is necessary to fight the cause of the decrease in hemoglobin.
- For anemia caused by blood loss, the bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible. With a large blood loss, life-threatening, use a blood transfusion.
- If you have iron deficiency anemia, you should eat foods rich in iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid (they improve the absorption of iron and blood formation processes), the doctor may also prescribe medications containing these substances. Often effective are folk remedies.
- With anemia provoked by infectious diseases and intoxication, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease, carrying out urgent measures to detoxify the body.
In the case of anemia, an important condition for treatment is a healthy lifestyle - a proper balanced diet, alternating loads and rest. It is also necessary to avoid contact with chemical or toxic substances and petroleum products.
An important component of treatment is a diet with foods rich in substances and trace elements that are necessary for the process of blood formation. What foods you need to eat with anemia in a child and an adult? Here is a list:
- meat, sausages;
- offal - especially liver;
- a fish;
- egg yolks;
- whole grain flour products;
- seeds - pumpkin, sunflower, sesame;
- nuts - especially pistachios;
- spinach, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, fennel, parsley leaves;
- black currant;
- sprouts, wheat germ;
- apricots, prunes, figs, dates;
Avoid caffeine-containing beverages (such as tea, coffee, cola), especially while eating, because caffeine interferes with iron absorption.
Iron preparations for anemia
Iron preparations for anemia are much more effective. The absorption of this trace element in the digestive tract of iron preparations is 15-20 times higher than that of food.
This allows you to effectively use iron supplements for anemia: to quickly raise hemoglobin, restore iron stores, eliminate general weakness, fatigue and other symptoms.
- Ferretab composite (0154 g of iron fumarate and 0.0005 g of folic acid). Additionally desirable to receive ascorbic acid in a daily dose of 0.2-0.3 g).
- Sorbifer durules (0.32 g of ferrous sulfate and 0.06 g of vitamin C) is available in pills daily dosage, depending on the degree of anemia, 2-3 times a day.
- Totem - available in bottles of 10 milliliters, the content of elements is the same as in the sorbifer. It is applied inside, it can be diluted with water, it can be used in case of intolerance to tablets of iron. Daily dose 1-2 reception.
- Fenules (0.15 g, ferrous sulfate, 0.05 g of vitamin C, vitamins B2, V6.0.005 g of calcium pantothenate.
- Vitamin B12 in ampoules of 1 ml of 0.02% and 0.05%.
- Folic acid tablets 1 mg.
- Ampoule iron preparations for intramuscular and intravenous administration are sold only by prescription and require injections only in stationary conditions due to the high frequency of allergic reactions to these drugs.
Do not take iron supplements in conjunction with drugs that reduce their absorption: Levomycetin, Calcium preparations, Tetracyclines, Antacids. As a rule, iron preparations are prescribed before meals, if there is no vitamin C in the medicine, then an additional intake of ascorbic acid in a daily dose of 0.2-0.3 g is required.
For each patient, the daily need for iron is calculated, as well as the duration of the course of treatment, the absorption of a particular prescribed drug and the iron content in it are taken into account. Usually, long courses of treatment are prescribed, during 1.5-2 months, therapeutic doses are taken, and in the next 2-3 months - prophylactic doses.
Iron deficiency anemia, not cured at an early stage, can have serious consequences. Severe goes into heart failure, coupled with tachycardia, edema, low blood pressure. Sometimes people go to the hospital with a sharp loss of consciousness, the cause of which is anemia that is either not cured or not detected in time.
Therefore, if you suspect this ailment or are prone to low hemoglobin, then it is necessary to take a blood test every three months.