Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is elevated - what does this mean?

Immunoglobulins are specific proteins that are produced by the immune system. Class E immunoglobulins are released into the blood when various allergens enter it. IG is designed to protect the body from these elements, preventing their destructive effect on healthy cells. Determination of type E immunoglobulin is an important diagnostic procedure in some pathologies of allergic etiology.

The rate of estradiol in women, the causes of high or low levels

Estradiol (E2) is a female hormone that is produced by the cells of the ovaries, to a lesser extent - by the adrenal cortex. In pregnant women, this biologically active substance is produced by the placenta. The main task of estradiol is to maintain and regulate the menstrual and reproductive functions. This system works smoothly only if the indicators of the hormonal substance are within the normal range.

What does increased prolactin in women say?

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the cells of the adenohypophysis, and is responsible for the growth of the mammary glands and ensuring lactation. In addition, under the influence of a substance maternal instinct develops, the menstrual cycle is regulated and immunity is maintained. During the gestational period, prolactin contributes to the full functioning of the corpus luteum.

Detailed transcript analysis of smear for flora in women

The smear analysis for flora is one of the most important diagnostic methods in gynecology. A smear is taken from the vaginal mucosa, cervix or urethra. This analysis allows to assess the state of the microflora of the urogenital system and to identify the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Analysis of smear for flora in women is performed during a routine examination by a gynecologist and if there are complaints from the urinary system.

What biochemical blood test shows: decoding, norm

Biochemical analysis of blood - a study that is conducted in the laboratory, and is used in medicine to identify information about the functional state of the organism as a whole, the organs separately. Its results help to accurately determine the malfunction of the body. Correct interpretation of the indicators of biochemical blood analysis in adults allows for accurate diagnosis of the state of internal organs.

Activated partial thromboplastin time

Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a special medical test that simulates the process of blood clotting along the internal pathway, aimed at assessing the presence of plasma factors, inhibitors and anticoagulants in the blood. It shows the effectiveness of the internal mechanism of blood clotting, allows you to diagnose hemophilia and monitor patients undergoing heparin and gerudin therapy.

What does a complete blood count show: transcript, normal

Complete blood count is perhaps the most common method of laboratory diagnosis. In modern civilized society, there is practically no one person who would not have to repeatedly donate blood for a general analysis. After all, this study is carried out not only sick, but also quite healthy people with planned medical examinations at work, in educational institutions, military service.

Why are urine cylinders elevated, what does it mean?

The appearance of cylinders in the urine is called cylindruria. They represent a kind of sediment in the liquid when urinating, having a cylindrical shape. Various types of cylinders provide an opportunity to recognize diseases of the lower zone of the urogenital tract (urethritis, etc.), as well as developing impairment of renal function.

Increased urine salt, what does this mean?

The value of the indicators of most medical tests for people unfamiliar with medical science is a “dark forest”. No exception and general urine analysis. In particular, indicators of salt levels, because it, in fact, must be present in this biological fluid. What then is bad if there is three or four pluses in the analysis opposite the corresponding parameter, at a rate of 1-2?

Elevated epithelium in urine, what does it mean?

Urine tests are a compulsory procedure in order to find out the general condition of the body and the presence of any diseases. One of the indicators of this analysis is the epithelium. It is the cell layer that lines the skin surface, the mucous membranes of the internal organs and systems. The epithelium has its own characteristics and structure.

Increased sugar in the urine, what does this mean?

Very often, on the basis of indicators of blood glucose levels, the state of various systems and organs of the human body is determined. Normally, sugar should not exceed 8.8-9.9 mmol per 1 liter. If his blood level rises, the tubules of the kidneys lose their ability to normally absorb an increased amount of glucose into the blood from the urine.

Nitrites are found in the urine, what does this mean?

Usually, doctors do not advise to independently decipher urine tests. Firstly, any business should be done by a specialist, and secondly, it is important to evaluate all indicators in the complex. But all the rules, as you know, there are exceptions. And when the urine analysis of a child or an adult showed the presence of nitrites, a bacterial infection of the urinary tract should almost certainly be expected.

Blood Platelet Norm

Platelets are small blood plates that form in red bone marrow cells and play an important role in the processes of hemostasis and thrombosis. It is on the platelets depends on the preservation of blood in the liquid state, the dissolution of the resulting blood clots and the protection of the walls of blood vessels from damage.